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what is Digital ICs :
Digital ICs/Combinational Logic
Introduction to Digital Circuits : 2 of 3
In this session, Part 2 of Digital Circuits, we will look at Digital ICs and Combinational Logic
What are Digital ICs?
The abbreviation IC stands for “integrated circuit” and in practice denotes any semiconductor-based chip comprising an integrated set of digital circuitry. Digital ICs come in many different types; the following listing shows the IC types used for various applications.
ICs that carry out various types of processing
ICs that store data
Standard Logic ICs
ICs put together in various combinations to implement particular functionalities
Custom Logic ICs
Original dedicated circuitry implemented by or for the needs of a particular user
A standard logic IC is a single, small, integrated package carrying basic components and common functionalities for a logic circuit. These ICs are core components of logic circuits. Today’s session on digital ICs will focus on this type of IC.
Standard Logic ICs: the Foundation of Digital Circuitry
There are roughly 600 types of standard logic ICs, from basic chips to highly functional arithmetic-and-logic units. There are two different types of implementation: TTL and CMOS.
Transistor-transistor logic ICs: The main circuitry is built with bipolar transistors. These chips run on 5-V power.
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor ICs: The main circuitry is built from pairs of p-type and n-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Voltages used to drive these chips extend over a wide range.
Figure 1: TTL ICv
Figure 1: TTL IC
If a design calls for signals to be passed among digital ICs, then the designer must know the logical conditions that will produce an H or L, and the voltage ranges that represent these conditions. Voltage ranges corresponding to logical conditions are called logic levels. Communicating ICs must use the same logic levels; use of different levels will disable communication and may even cause IC breakage.
types of Digital ICs :
1. Integrated Circuits :
Integrated circuit or IC or microchip or chip is a microscopic electronic circuit array formedby the fabrication of various electrical and electronic components (resistors, capacitors, transistors, and so on) on a semiconductor material (silicon) wafer, which can perform operations similar to the large discrete electronic circuits made of discrete electronic components.
As all these arrays of components, microscopic circuits and semiconductor wafer material base are integrated together to form a single chip, hence, it is called as integrated circuit or integrated chip or microchip.
2. Digital Integrated Circuits :
The integrated circuits that operate only at a few defined levels instead of operating over all levels of signal amplitude are called as Digital ICs and these are designed by using multiple number of digital logic gates, multiplexers, flip flops and other electronic components of circuits.These logic gates work with binary input data or digital input data, such as 0 (low or false or logic 0) and 1 (high or true or logic 1).
3. Analog Integrated Circuits :
The integrated circuits that operate over a continuous range of signal are called as Analog ICs. These are subdivided as linear Integrated Circuits (Linear ICs) and Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RF ICs). In fact, the relationship between the voltage and current maybe nonlinear in some cases over a long range of the continuous analog signal.
4. Mixed Integrated Circuits :
The integrated circuits that are obtained by the combination of analog and digital ICs on a single chip are called as Mixed ICs. These ICs functions as Digital to Analog converters, Analog to Digital converters (D/A and A/D converters) and clock/timing ICs. The circuit depicted in the above figure is an example of mixed integrated circuit which is a photograph of the 8 to 18 GHz self healing radar receiver.
This mixed-signal Systems-on-a-chip is a result of advances in the integration technology, which enabled to integrate digital, multiple analog and RF functions on a single chip.
General types of integrated circuits(ICs) include the following
5. Switching ICs :
Switches or Switching ICs are designed by using the transistors and are used for performing the switching operations. The above figure is an example showing an SPDT IC switch.
6. Audio amplifiers :
The audio amplifiers are one of the many types of ICs, which are used for the amplification of the audio. These are generally used in the audio speakers, television circuits, and so on. The above circuit shows the low- voltage audio amplifier IC
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